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Originally named CD Write-Once (WO), the CD-R specification was first published in 1988 by Philips and Sony in the Orange Book, which consists of several parts that provide details of the CD-WO, CD-MO (Magneto-Optic), and later CD-RW (ReWritable). The latest editions have abandoned the use of the term "CD-WO" in favor of "CD-R", while "CD-MO" was rarely used. Written CD-Rs and CD-RWs are, in the aspect of low-level encoding and data format, fully compatible with the audio CD (Red Book CD-DA) and data CD (Yellow Book CD-ROM) standards. The Yellow Book standard for CD-ROM only specifies a high-level data format and refers to the Red Book for all physical format and low-level code details, such as track pitch, linear bit density, and bitstream encoding. This means they use Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, CIRC error correction, and, for CD-ROM, the third error correction layer defined in the Yellow Book. Properly written CD-R discs on blanks of less than 80 minutes in length are fully compatible with the audio CD and CD-ROM standards in all details including physical specifications. 80-minute CD-R discs marginally violate the Red Book physical format specifications, and longer discs are noncompliant. CD-RW discs have lower reflectivity than CD-R or pressed (non-writable) CDs and for this reason cannot meet the Red Book standard. Some hardware compatible with Red Book CDs may have difficulty reading CD-Rs and, because of their lower reflectivity, especially CD-RWs. To the extent that CD hardware can read extended-length discs or CD-RW discs, it is because that hardware has capability beyond the minimum required by the Red Book and Yellow Book standards (the hardware is more capable than it needs to be to bear the Compact Disc logo).
In the United States, there is a market separation between "music" CD-Rs and "data" CD-Rs, the former being notably more expensive than the latter due to industry copyright arrangements with the RIAA. Specifically, the price of every music CD-R includes a mandatory royalty disbursed to RIAA members by the disc manufacturer; this grants the disc an "application flag" indicating that the royalty has been paid. Consumer standalone music recorders refuse to burn CD-Rs that are missing this flag. Professional CD recorders are not subject to this restriction and can record music to data discs. The two types of discs are functionally and physically identical other than this, and computer CD burners can record data and/or music to either. New music CD-Rs are still being manufactured as of the late 2010s, although demand for them has declined as CD-based music recorders have been supplanted by other devices incorporating the same or similar functionality.
Prior to CD-R, Tandy Corporation had announced a rewritable CD system known as the Tandy High-Density Optical Recording (THOR) system, claiming to offer support for erasable and rewritable discs, made possible by a "secret coating material" on which Tandy had applied for patents, and reportedly based partly on a process developed by Optical Data Inc., with research and development undertaken at Tandy's Magnetic Media Research Center. Known also as the Tandy High-Intensity Optical Recording system, THOR-CD media was intended to be playable in existing CD players, being compatible with existing CD audio and CD-ROM equipment, with the discs themselves employing a layer in which the "marks", "bumps" or "pits" readable by a conventional CD player could be established in, and removed from, the medium by a laser operating at a different frequency. Tandy's announcement was surprising enough to "catch half a dozen industries off guard", claiming availability of consumer-level audio and video products below $500 by the end of 1990, and inviting other organisations to license the technology. The announcement attracted enthusiasm but also skepticism of Tandy's capability to deliver the system, with the latter proving to be justified, the technology having been "announced... heavily promoted; then it was delayed, and finally, it just never appeared".
A standard CD-R is a 1.2 mm (0.047 in) thick disc made of polycarbonate about 120 mm (5") in diameter. The 120 mm (5") disc has a storage capacity of 74 minutes of audio or 650 Megabytes (MBs) of data. CD-R/RWs are available with capacities of 80 minutes of audio or 737,280,000 bytes (700 MB), which they achieve by molding the disc at the tightest allowable tolerances specified in the Orange Book CD-R/CD-RW standards. The engineering margin that was reserved for manufacturing tolerance has been used for data capacity instead, leaving no tolerance for manufacturing; for these discs to be truly compliant with the Orange Book standard, the manufacturing process must be perfect.
Despite the foregoing, most CD-Rs on the market have an 80-minute capacity. There are also 90 minute/790 MB and 99 minute/870 MB discs, although they are less common and depart from the Orange Book standard. Due to the limitations of the data structures in the ATIP, 90 and 99-minute blanks will identify as 80-minute ones. As the ATIP is part of the Orange Book standard, its design does not support some nonstandard disc configurations. In order to use the additional capacity, these discs have to be burned using overburn options in the CD recording software. Overburning itself is so named because it is outside the written standards, but, due to market demand, it has nonetheless become a de facto standard function in most CD writing drives and software for them.
Some drives use special techniques, such as Plextor's GigaRec or Sanyo's HD-BURN, to write more data onto a given disc; these techniques are deviations from the compact disc (Red, Yellow, and/or Orange Book) standards, making the recorded discs proprietary-formatted and not fully compatible with standard CD players and drives. In certain applications where discs will not be distributed or exchanged outside a private group and will not be archived for a long time, a proprietary format may be an acceptable way to obtain greater capacity (up to 1.2 GB with GigaRec or 1.8 GB with HD-BURN on 99-minute media). The greatest risk in using such a proprietary data storage format, assuming that it works reliably as designed, is that it may be difficult or impossible to repair or replace the hardware used to read the media if it fails, is damaged, or is lost after its original vendor discontinues it.
Nothing in the Red, Yellow, or Orange Book standards prohibits disc reading/writing devices from having the capacity to read/write discs beyond the compact disc standards. The standards do require discs to meet precise requirements in order to be called compact discs, but the other discs may be called by other names; if this were not true, no DVD drive could legally bear the compact disc logo. While disc players and drives may have capabilities beyond the standards, enabling them to read and write nonstandard discs, there is no assurance, in the absence of explicit additional manufacturer specifications beyond normal compact disc logo certification, that any particular player or drive will perform beyond the standards at all or consistently. If the same device with no explicit performance specs beyond the compact disc logo initially handles nonstandard discs reliably, there is no assurance that it will not later stop doing so, and in that case, there is no assurance that it can be made to do so again by service or adjustment. Discs with capacities larger than 650 MB, and especially those larger than 700 MB, are less interchangeable among players/drives than standard discs and are not very suitable for archival use, as their readability on future equipment, or even on the same equipment at a future time, is not assured unless specifically tested and certified in that combination, even under the assumption that the discs will not degrade at all.
Unfortunately, many manufacturers have added additional coloring to disguise their unstable cyanine CD-Rs in the past, so the formulation of a disc cannot be determined based purely on its color. Similarly, a gold reflective layer does not guarantee the use of phthalocyanine dye. The quality of the disc is also not only dependent on the dye used, it is also influenced by sealing, the top layer, the reflective layer, and the polycarbonate. Simply choosing a disc based on its dye type may be problematic. Furthermore, correct power calibration of the laser in the writer, as well as correct timing of the laser pulses, stable disc speed, and so on, is critical to not only the immediate readability but the longevity of the recorded disc, so for archiving it is important to have not only a high-quality disc but a high-quality writer. In fact, a high-quality writer may produce adequate results with medium-quality media, but high-quality media cannot compensate for a mediocre writer, and discs written by such a writer cannot achieve their maximum potential archival lifetime.
CDs have a Power Calibration Area, used to calibrate the writing laser before and during recording. CDs contain two such areas: one close to the inner edge of the disc, for low-speed calibration, and another on the outer edge on the disc, for high-speed calibration. The calibration results are recorded on a Recording Management Area (RMA) that can hold up to 99 calibrations. The disc cannot be written after the RMA is full, however, the RMA may be emptied in CD-RW discs.  041b061a72